Introduction by Cheng Li (director of research, China Center, Brookings Institution). China is now the world’s largest exporter and the third-largest economy. It has become the world’s largest carbon emitter and second-largest consumer of energy. Forecasts that China will become a “mature, responsible, and attractive superpower” that will contribute, alongside the European Union, to the “end of the unipolar era dominated by the United States”. Looks at three major dimensions of China’s rise: 1) its economic and social development; 2) advances in education, science, and technology; and 3) the likely complications posed by resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and climate change.