* National Security Through a Cockeyed Lens: How Cognitive Bias Impacts U.S. Foreign Policy. Steve A. Yetiv (Prof of Pol Sci, Old Dominion U). Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins U Press, Dec 2013, 192p, $24.95pb (also as e-book). “How do mental errors or cognitive biases undermine good decision making?” Yetiv draws on four decades of psychological, historical, and political science research on cognitive biases to illuminate some of the key pitfalls in our leaders’ decision-making processes and some of the mental errors we make in perceiving ourselves and the world. Tracing five U.S. national security episodes—1) the 1979 Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan; 2) the Iran-Contra affair during the Reagan administration; 3) the rise of Al-Qaeda, leading to the 9/11 attacks; 4) the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq; and 5) the development of U.S. energy policy—Yetiv reveals how a dozen cognitive biases have been more influential in impacting U.S. national security than commonly believed or understood. Cognitive biases include tunnel vision (“focus feature”); distorted perception (“cockeyed lens”); overconfidence; and short-term thinking. Yetiv explains how each bias drove the decision-making process and examines a range of debiasing techniques that can improve decision making. (SECURITY * COGNITIVE BIAS AND U.S. SECURITY DECISIONS)
* Transport, the Environment and Security: Making the Connection. Rae Zimmerman (Prof of Planning and Public Administration, NYU). Northampton MA: Edward Elgar, 2012, 288p, $120 (also as e-book). Effective means of transport are critical under both normal and extreme conditions, but modern transport systems are subject to many diverse demands. The fields of transportation, environment (with an emphasis on climate change) and security (for both natural hazards and terrorism), and their interconnections, remain robust areas for policy and planning. 1) Explores transportation in conjunction with environment, security, and interdependencies with other infrastructure sectors; 2) provides collective solutions to their respective issues and challenges; 3) discusses topics such as the US rail transit system, ecological corridors, cyber security, planning mechanisms and the effectiveness of technologies are among the topics explored in detail; and finally 4) presents case studies of severe and potential impacts of natural hazards, accidents, and security breaches on transportation. (SECURITY * TRANSPORTATION * ENVIRONMENT)
* Law and War. Edited by Austin Sarat (Prof of Jurisprudence and Political Science, Amherst College), Lawrence Douglas (Prof of Jurisprudence and Political Science, Amherst College), and Martha Merrill Umphrey (Chair of Law, Jurisprudence, and Social Thought, Amherst College). Stanford Law Books. Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Jan 2014, 248p, $75 (also as e-book). Historically the term “war crime” struck some as redundant and others as oxymoronic: redundant because war itself is criminal; oxymoronic because war submits to no law. More recently, the trend toward the juridification of warfare has emerged, as law has sought to stretch its dominion over every aspect of war. Law now seeks to subdue warfare and to enlist it into the service of legal goals. It has emerged as a force that stands over and above war, endowed with the power to authorize and restrain, to declare and limit, to justify and condemn. (SECURITY * LAW AND WAR * WAR SUBDUED BY LAW)
* Constructing Cassandra: Reframing Intelligence Failure at the CIA, 1947–2001. Milo Jones (Visiting Prof, IE Business School, Madrid, Spain) and Philippe Silberzahn (Prof of Strategy, EMLyon Business School, France and Research Fellow, Ecole Polytechnique, France). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Sept 2013, 320p, $40 (also as e-book). Intelligence failures at the CIA resulted in four key strategic surprises experienced by the US: the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, the Iranian revolution of 1978, the collapse of the USSR in 1991, and the 9/11 terrorist attacks. While some of these events may seem distant, these surprises still play out today in US policy. Provides a unified understanding of the phenomenon; brings culture and identity to the foreground to present a model of strategic surprise that focuses on the internal make-up the CIA; takes seriously those Cassandras who offered warnings, but were ignored; explains the ultimate sources of the CIA’s intelligence failures; and points to ways to prevent future strategic surprises. (INTELLIGENCE FAILURES * SECURITY * CIA FAILURES * METHODS)
* Anticipating a Nuclear Iran: Challenges for U.S. Security. Jacquelyn K. Davis (executive vice president, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis) and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff Jr. (president, IFPA; Prof of International Security Studies, Tufts U). NY: Columbia U Press, Dec 2013, 272p, $35. The authors assume the worst: a defensive, aggressive Iran already possesses a nuclear arsenal. They concentrate on three scenario models; the type of nuclear capability Iran might develop; the conditions under which Iran might resort to threatened or actual weapons use; the extent to which Iran's military strategy and declaratory policy might embolden Iran and its proxies to pursue more aggressive policies in the region and vis-a-vis the United States; and Iran's ability to transfer nuclear materials to others within and outside the region, possibly sparking a nuclear cascade. (NUCLEAR IRAN * SECURITY)
* Nuclear Nightmares: Securing the World Before It Is Too Late. Joseph Cirincione (president, Ploughshares Fund; member, Council on Foreign Relations). NY: Columbia U Press, Nov 2013, 256p, $26.95. There is a high risk that someone will use, by accident or design, one or more of the 17,000 nuclear weapons in the world today. Many thought such threats ended with the Cold War or that current policies can prevent or contain nuclear disaster. They are dead wrong -- these weapons, possessed by states large and small, stable and unstable, remain an ongoing nightmare. However, there is hope: in the 1960s, 23 states had nuclear weapons and research programs; today, only 10 states have weapons or are seeking them. More countries have abandoned nuclear weapon programs than have developed them, and global arsenals are just one-quarter of what they were during the Cold War. (NUCLEAR WEAPONS * SECURITY)
* The Quest for Security: Protection without Protectionism and the Challenge of Global Governance. Edited by Joseph E. Stiglitz (Prof and co-chair, Committee on Global Thought, Columbia U; former chief economist and senior vice president, World Bank) and Mary Kaldor (Prof of Global Governance and director, Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit, London School of Economics). NY: Columbia U Press, April 2013, 432p, $39.50 US. In a globalized world without a global government, with a system of global governance not up to the tasks, how do we achieve security without looking inward and stepping back from globalization? Contributors seek answers to questions about how we achieve protection of those people who are most insecure without resorting to economic, military, or mafia protectionism. In particular, they explore the potential for cities to effectively ensure personal security, promote political participation, and protect the environment. [NOTE: For a long review, see GFB Book of the Month for August 2013.] (SECURITY * GLOBAL GOVERNANCE * PROTECTIONISM)
* Understanding Global Security (3rd Edition). Peter Hough (Middlesex U, UK). NY: Routledge, July 2013, 336p, $44.95pb (www.routledge.com/9780415688406) (www.routledge.com/9780415688406). Textbook on the variety of ways in which peoples’ lives are threatened and/or secured in contemporary global politics. The traditional focuses: war, deterrence and terrorism are analyzed alongside non-military security issues such as famine, crime, disease, disasters, environmental degradation and human rights abuses. Key features include: 1) ‘top ten’ tables highlighting the most destructive events or forms of death in that area throughout history; 2) boxed descriptions elaborating key concepts in the field of security and international relations; 3) ‘biographical boxes’ of key individuals who have shaped world events; 4) further reading and websites at the end of each chapter, showing up-to-date information on various topics; and 5) glossary of political terminology. (GLOBAL SECURITY * NON-MILITARY SECURITY)
** Global Environment Outlook 5 (GEO-5): Environment for the Future We Want. UN Environment Programme. Early Warning and Assessment Technical Report. NY: United Nations Publications, Jan 2013, 548p, $80pb. The currently observed changes to the Earth System are unprecedented in human history. Efforts to slow the rate or extent of change – including enhanced resource efficiency and mitigation measures – have resulted in moderate successes but have not succeeded in reversing adverse environmental changes. Neither the scope of these nor their speed has abated in the past five years. As human pressures on the Earth System accelerate, several critical global, regional and local thresholds are close or have been exceeded. Once these have been passed, abrupt and possibly irreversible changes to the life-support functions of the planet are likely to occur, with significant adverse implications for human well-being. GEO builds on the assessment findings of its predecessor and draws from lessons learned. (ENVIRONMENT * SECURITY)
**The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations, and Business. Eric Schmidt (executive chairman, Google; former Google CEO) and Jared Cohen (director of Google Ideas; adjunct senior fellow, Council on Foreign Relations). NY: Alfred A. Knopf, April 2013, 315p, $26.95. The Internet continues to mutate, growing larger and more complex; it has “transformed into an omnipresent and endlessly multifaceted outlet for human energy and expression…a source for tremendous good and potentially dreadful evil.” (p.3) By 2025, the majority of the world’s population will have access to all of the world’s information through a device that fits in the palm of the hand. At every level of society, connectivity will continue to be more affordable. “We’ll be more efficient, more productive, and more creative.” (p.4)
The vast majority, digitally empowered, will increasingly find themselves living, working, and being governed in two worlds, virtual and physical. “On the world stage, the most significant impact of the spread of communication technologies will be the way they help reallocate the concentration of power away from states and institutions and transfer it to individuals.” (p.6) Authoritarian governments will find newly connected populations more difficult to control, while democratic states will be forced to include many more voices.
The seven chapters are all future-oriented. 1) Our Future Selves. “Soon everyone on Earth will be connected” (p.13), and everyone will benefit, but not equally. Instant language translation, virtual-reality interactions, and real-time collective editing will reshape how firms and organizations interact. Mobile phones will offer safe and inexpensive options for educating children, and IT will assist advances in health and medicine in many ways. “Connectivity benefits everyone. Those who have none will have some, and those who have a lot will have even more.” (p.28) 2) The Future of Identity, Citizenship and Reporting. “In the next decade, the world’s virtual population will outnumber the population of the earth,” (p.32) as nearly everyone is represented in multiple ways online. “Identity will be the most valuable commodity for citizens in the future, and it will exist primary online.” (p.36) Businesses will proliferate that cater to privacy and reputation concerns, and a new realm of insurance will protect online identity against theft and hacking, fraudulent accusations, or misuse. “Where we get our information and what sources we trust will have a profound impact on our future identities.” (p.47) New coping strategies will be needed for corporations, the law, civil society organizations, and peer-to-peer communications, especially as states collect more biometric information through voice-recognition and facial-recognition software. 3) The Future of States. On the balkanization of the Internet, state censorship or “filtering,” issues of defending freedom of information and expression, concerns about intellectual property (especially as concerns China), the decreasing importance of size (technology empowers all parties, and allows smaller actors to have outsized impacts), groups lacking formal statehood that may establish virtual sovereignty (e.g., the Kurds), cyber-attacks and cyber war (in the future, dozens of states will have the capacity to launch large-scale cyber-attacks), the new multi-polar Code War (where ideological fault lines will emerge around free expression and open data); “states will have to contend with the fact that governing at home and influencing abroad is far more difficult now” (p.120). 4) The Future of Revolution. “The noisy nature of the virtual world will impede the ability of state security to keep up with and crush revolutionary activity, enabling a revolution to start… as connectivity spreads and new portions of the world are welcomed into the online fold, revolutions will continually sprout up, more casually and more often…groups all around the world will seize their moment, addressing long-held grievances or new concerns…democratic societies will see more protests related to perceived social injustice and economic inequality, while people in repressive countries will demonstrate against issues like fraudulent elections, corruption, and police brutality…there will be few truly new causes, merely better forms of mobilization and many more participants.” (p.122) Future revolutions may change regimes, “but they will not necessarily produce democratic outcomes.” (p.148) 5) The Future of Terrorism. Technology is an equal-opportunity enabler, and “the unavoidable truth is that connectivity benefits terrorists and violent extremists too; as it spreads, so will the risks.” (p.150) There are clear advantages to cyber attacks for extremist groups: little or no risk of personal bodily harm, minimal resource commitment, and opportunities to inflict a massive amount of damage. The technical skills of violent extremists will grow as they develop strategies for recruitment, training, and execution in the virtual world. But despite these gains, IT in the digital age also makes terrorists far more vulnerable, and cyber terrorists will have less room for error (only one mistake or weak link can compromise an entire network). 6) The Future of Conflict, Combat and Intervention. “In the future, massacres on a genocidal scale will be harder to conduct, but discrimination will likely worsen and become more personal.” (p.184) Increased connectivity will provide practitioners of discrimination with new ways to marginalize minorities and other disliked communities (e.g., the Chinese government may target the troublesome Uighur minority in western China by eliminating all Uigher content online, or by curtailing Internet access). The landscape of future war will be nothing like it has been in the past, due to automation of warfare, unmanned systems for combat, virtualized conflict, and the need to maintain cybersecurity of equipment and systems. Ultimately, technology will complicate conflict. Aggressors will take more actions in the less risky virtual front, with hard-to-attribute cyber first-strike invasions. 7) The Future of Reconstruction. New technology can turn societies upside-down and even tear them apart, but it can also help to put them back together. “Reconstruction efforts will become more innovative, more inclusive and more efficient over time, as old models and methods are either updated or discarded…Just as future conflicts will see the addition of a virtual front, so too will reconstruction efforts.” (p.217) In the emerging reconstruction prototype, virtual institutions will exist in parallel with their physical counterparts and serve as a backup in times of need, with many government functions conducted on online platforms.
Conclusions: 1) “the vast majority of the world will be net beneficiaries of connectivity, experiencing greater efficiency and opportunities, and an improved quality of life; but despite these almost universal benefits, the connected experience will not be uniform—a digital caste system will endure well into the future” (p.254); 2) technology alone is no panacea for the world’s ills, yet smart uses of technology can make a world of difference; 3) “the virtual world will not overtake or overhaul the existing world order, but it will complicate almost every behavior” (p.255); 4) states will have to practice two foreign policies and two domestic policies—one for the virtual world and one for the physical world; 5) citizens will have more power than ever before, “but it will come with costs, particularly to both privacy and security.”
[COMMENT: The future world according to two leading Googlers may be hyped to some degree and slanted to more net gain than loss (could self-interested Google claim otherwise?), but the myriad forecasts herein deserve close attention. Many fresh and important ideas are provided on security (revolution, terrorism, conflict, reconstruction), but nothing whatsoever on sustainability (climate change, energy, ecosystems, population, etc.) or the downside of information hyper-abundance: chaotic infoglut. On the other hand, those thinking about sustainability almost universally ignore the disruptive threats and opportunities of the new digital age.]
(COMMUNICATION * SECURITY * DIGITAL AGE)
* Privatizing War: Private Military and Security Companies under Public International Law. Lindsey Cameron (U of Geneva) and Vincent Chetail (Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva). NY: Cambridge U Press, March 2013, 768p, $150. A growing number of states use private military and security companies for a variety of tasks that were traditionally fulfilled by soldiers. Existing legal obligations, including state and individual criminal responsibility, should play a role in regulating PMSCs. The authors discuss the law applicable to PMSCs active in situations of armed conflict, present the limits in international law on how states may use private actors, and cover issues such as the extent to which PMSCs are bound by humanitarian law, whether their staff are civilians or combatants, and how the use of force in self-defense relates to direct participation in hostilities. (SECURITY * PRIVATE MILITARY AND SECURITY COMPANIES * INTERNATIONAL LAW)
*Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Small Arms Survey (Geneva). NY: Cambridge U Press, Oct 2012, 374p, $34.99pb (also as e-book). Armed violence, both lethal and non-lethal, continues to undermine the security and well-being of people and societies around the world. The goal of curbing small arms proliferation, embodied in the UN Programme of Action, appears similarly elusive. Covers successes and challenges related to armed violence and small arms proliferation. Topics include firearm homicide in Latin America and the Caribbean, drug violence in selected Latin American countries, non-lethal violence worldwide, illicit small arms in war zones, trade transparency, Somali piracy, and the 2011 UN Meeting of Governmental Experts, country studies on Kazakhstan and Somaliland, and the final installment of the authorized transfers project. (SMALL ARMS * SECURITY)
**The Future of Intelligence: Challenges in the 21st Century (Studies in Intelligence Series). Edited by Ben de Jong (lecturer, Dept of East European History, U of Amsterdam), Isabelle Duyvesteyn (Assoc Prof, Dept of History of International Relations, Utrecht U), and Joop van Reijn (Chairman, Netherlands Intelligence Studies Association). NY: Routledge, Oct 2013, 240p, $135 (also as e-book). Gone are the days when the main focus of Western intelligence services was on the intentions and capabilities of the Soviet Union and its allies. Instead, at present, there is a plethora of threats and problems that deserve attention. Some of these problems are short-term and potentially acute, such as terrorism; others are longer-term and by nature often more difficult to foresee in their implications, such as the exhaustion of natural resources. As the essays in this book show, scholars in the field can and do have strong differences of opinion regarding the nature, intensity and likelihood of a particular threat, for instance with respect to cyber-attacks and cyber-espionage. Points of view also diverge widely on what changes are deemed necessary in the way the intelligence process is organized, its relationship with basic democratic principles such as the rule of law, and on the opportunities for increased international intelligence cooperation to meet possible future threats and changes in the political environment. Chapters discuss the future of intelligence, the shift in intelligence, organizing for intelligence, the impact of information technology, training for the intelligence profession, intelligence as process, the future of counter-intelligence, intelligence co-operation, European intelligence co-operation, intelligence-led policing, etc. (SECURITY * INTELLIGENCE CHALLENGES * TERRORISM AND INTELLIGENCE)
*Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues. Rita Floyd (Fellow in Conflict and Security, Department of Pol Sci, U of Birmingham, UK) and Richard Matthew (Prof of Social Ecology and Social Science, U of California, Irvine; founding Director, Center for Unconventional Security Affairs). NY: Routledge, Dec 2012, 302p, $46.95pb (also as e-book). For over 20 years, considerable research and debate have focused on clarifying or disputing linkages between various forms of environmental change and various understandings of security. At one extreme lie skeptics who contend that the linkages are weak or even non-existent; they are simply attempts to harness the resources of the security arena to an environmental agenda. At the other extreme lie those who believe that these linkages may be the most important drivers of security in the 21st century; indeed, the very future of humankind may be at stake. Contributions from a range of disciplines present a critical and comprehensive overview of the research and debate linking environmental factors to security while providing a framework for representing and understanding key areas of intellectual convergence and disagreement. Sections focus on 1) how environmental change and security have been linked; 2) how climate change, energy, water, food, population, and development feature in these linkages; 3) why this subfield of security studies is important and what it holds for the future. (SECURITY * ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY)
*The Routledge Handbook of Human Security. Edited by Mary Martin (London School of Economics) and Taylor Owen (Oxford U). NY: Routledge, July 2013, 384p, $205. Human security has grown greatly in importance over the past fifteen years, since the concept was first promoted by the UNDP in its 1993 and 1994 Human Development Reports. The authors fill a gap in the literature on human security and provide a broad overview of human security scholarship and thinking, reflecting the multi-disciplinary perspectives which have informed the development of the concept and its policy use. They also elaborate on how human security has been theorized, and tackle some of the methodological issues which it raises. Three broad aspects of human security thinking are considered: 1) theoretical issues, 2) policy and institutional perspectives, and 3) case studies and empirical work. Chapters discuss Human Security vs. Human Rights vs. Human Development; the critical view of human security; human and national security; global policy challenges to HS (violence and conflict, development/poverty, disasters, environment, health); economics and human security; human security applications in Canada, Japan, European Union, African Union, the US, Asia, and Latin America; and methodologies, tools, indicators, mapping, etc. (SECURITY * HUMAN SECURITY * DEVELOPMENT * GLOBAL GOVERNANCE)
*Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. Jeffrey D. Simon (Political Risk Assessment Co.; Visiting Lecturer in Pol Sci, UCLA; www.futureterrorism.com). Foreword by Brian Michael Jenkins (RAND). Amherst NY: Prometheus Books, Feb 2013, 335 p, $26. Former CIA director Leon Panetta told Congress in 2010 that the lone wolf terrorist is “the main threat” to the US. This threat is increasingly occurring in rich and poor countries worldwide, and “is destined to grow in the coming years,” enabled by advances in technology, particularly the Internet, which offers information on tactics, targets, and weapons. Lone wolves do not have to consider whether their ends justify the means, since they are beholden to nobody, and often think “out of the box.” Five basic but overlapping types: the secular lone wolf (attacks for political causes), the religious lone wolf (Islamic extremists and white supremacists have been most active recently), the single-issue lone wolf (e.g. anti-abortion, animal rights, the environment), the criminal lone wolf (seeking financial gain), and the ideosyncratic lone wolf (with severe psychological problems). Strategies for prevention include improved detection devices, more closed circuit TV in public areas, biometrics, monitoring lone wolf use of the Internet, and increasing public awareness. Lessons learned: lone wolves are not as crazy as many assume, al Qaeda and Islamic militancy has inspired lone wolf attacks but many other attackers are motivated for different reasons, be skeptical of statistics, and do not underestimate the creativity and danger of the lone wolf. (TERRORISM * SECURITY * CRIME/JUSTICE)
**Full Planet, Empty Plates: The New Geopolitics of Food Security. Lester R. Brown (President, Earth Policy Institute, Washington; www.earthpolicy.org ). NY: W. W. Norton, Oct 2012, 144p, $16.95pb. “The world is in transition from an era of food abundance to one of scarcity. Over the last decade, world grain reserves have fallen by a third. World food prices have more than doubled, triggering a worldwide land rush and ushering in a new geopolitics of food. Food is the new oil. Land is the new gold.” (p.3) We are entering a new era of rising food prices and spreading hunger (the number of hungry people in the world dropped to a low of 792 million in 1997, and is now climbing to 1 billion). On the demand side of the food equation, population growth, rising affluence, and conversion of crops into fuel combine to raise consumption. On the supply side, extreme soil erosion, growing water shortages and depleted aquifers, and rising temperatures make it more difficult to expand production. Chapters discuss growth in human and livestock populations, some 3 billion people moving up the food chain by adding animal protein, production of ethanol and biodiesel displacing forests and food crops, accelerating loss of topsoil creating dust bowls and dust storms, depletion of water tables (in China, India, the US, and the Middle East—no country has succeeded in arresting the fall in its water tables, grain yields starting to plateau, the effect of rising temperatures on food crops (a 1oC rise above the norm lowers wheat, rice, and corn yields by 10%; corn is especially vulnerable), the rapid rise in world soybean consumption (China is by far the top importer), the global land rush as land and water become scarce, and initiatives to prevent a food breakdown (stabilize world population, reduce meat consumption, cancel biofuel mandates, cut carbon emissions to stabilize climate, raise carbon taxes, remove massive subsidies to fossil fuels, upgrade public transport, raise water productivity through drip irrigation and pricing, control soil erosion through no-till farming, and reduce military budgets: “armed aggression is no longer the principal threat to our future; the overriding threats in this century are climate change, population growth, spreading water shortages, rising food prices, and politically failing states.” (p.121) [ALSO SEE “Food, Fuel, and the Global Land Grab” by Lester R. Brown (The Futurist Cover Feature, Jan-Feb 2013, Pp21-26) and “From Farm to Landfill” (New York Times Editorial, 30 Sept 2012, SR16), noting that some 40% of food in the US is never eaten and thus wasted.] (FOOD AND AGRICULTURE * SECURITY * WATER)
*Strategy in the Second Nuclear Age: Power, Ambition, and the Ultimate Weapon. Edited by Toshi Yoshihara (Chair of Asia-Pacific Studies, US Naval War College) and James R. Holmes (Assoc Prof of Strategy, US Naval War College). Washington: Georgetown U Press, Dec 2012, 256p, $32.95pb (also as e-book). A “second nuclear age” has begun in the post-Cold War world. Increasing potency of nuclear arsenals in China, India, and Pakistan, the nuclear breakout in North Korea, and the potential for more states to cross the nuclear-weapons threshold (from Iran to Japan) suggest that the second nuclear age of many competing nuclear powers has the potential to be even less stable than the first. Scholars discuss how the United States, its allies, and its friends must size up the strategies, doctrines, and force structures currently taking shape to design responses that reinforce deterrence amid vastly more complex strategic circumstances. They focus sharply on strategy— as opposed to familiar net assessments emphasizing quantifiable factors like hardware, technical characteristics, and manpower--and pay special heed to the logistical, technological, and social dimensions of strategy alongside the specifics of force structure and operations. (SECURITY * NUCLEAR POWERS EXPANDING?)
*Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Commons: A Comprehensive Approach for International Security. Edited by Scott Jasper (retired Navy captain and lecturer, US Naval Postgraduate School, Center for Civil-Military Relations). Washington: Georgetown U Press, Sept 2012, 272p, $29.95pb (also as e-book). International security and economic prosperity depend on safe access to the shared domains that make up the global commons: maritime, air, space, and cyberspace, which together serve as essential conduits through which international commerce, communication, and governance prosper. However, the global commons are congested, contested, and competitive. In the January 2012 defense strategic guidance, the United States confirmed its commitment “to continue to lead global efforts with capable allies and partners to assure access to and use of the global commons, both by strengthening international norms of responsible behavior and by maintaining relevant and interoperable military capabilities.” The author identifies ways for the US to strengthen and maintain responsible use of the global commons with a view to enhance, align, and unify commercial industry, civil agency, and military perspectives and actions. (GLOBAL COMMONS * SECURITY)
* Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and Political Power in America. Martin Gilens (Prof of Politics, Princeton U). Princeton NJ: Princeton U Press and NY: Russell Sage Foundation, Aug 2012, 348p, $35. In an ideal democracy, all citizens should have equal influence on government policy—but America’s policymakers respond almost exclusively to the preferences of the economically advantaged. Political inequality in the United States has evolved over the last several decades, with growing disparity shaped by interest groups, parties, and elections. When preferences of low- or middle-income Americans diverge from those of the affluent, there is virtually no relationship between policy outcomes and the desires of less advantaged groups. In contrast, affluent Americans’ preferences exhibit a substantial relationship with policy outcomes whether their preferences are shared by lower-income groups or not. Under specific circumstances, preferences of the middle class and, to a lesser extent, the poor, seem to matter: impending elections and an even partisan division in Congress boost responsiveness to the preferences of the broader public. (SOCIETY * GOVERNMENT * POLITICAL INEQUALITY * INEQUALITY)
* Preventing a Biochemical Arms Race. Alexander Kelle (Senior Lecturer in Politics, U of Bath), Kathryn Nixdorff (retired Prof of Microbiology and Genetics, Darmstadt U of Technology), and Malcolm Dando (Prof of International Security, U of Bradford). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Oct 2012, 256p, $40 (also as e-book). Changes in the life sciences and the nature of warfare could lead to a resurgent interest in chemical and biological weapons (CBW) capabilities. The authors reveal how these two disparate fields might be integrated to precipitate a biochemical arms race among major powers, rogue states, or even non-state actors. Such an arms race may be looming if developments are left unattended. But they could be avoided. Identifies weaknesses in the international regime sructures revolving around the Biological Weans and Chemical Weapons Conventions. Policy proposals point to gaps and shortcomings in each prohibition regime individually, and the widening gap between them. (SECURITY *CHEMICAL WEAPONS * BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS)
* Living Under Drones: Death, Injury and Trauma to Civilians from US Drone Practices in Pakistan. Stanford/NYU Clinics Report, Oct 2012, 260p. (http://livingunderdrones.org). The result of nine months of research by the International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic of Stanford Law School (led by Prof James Cavallero and Stephan Sonnenberg) and the Global Justice Clinic at the NYU School of Law (led by Prof Sarah Knuckey). In the US, the dominant narrative about use of drones in Pakistan is of a surgically precise and effective tool that makes the US safer by enabling “targeted killing” of terrorists, with minimal downsides or collateral impacts. “This narrative is false.” It is essential that public debate about US policies take the negative effects of current policies into account: 1) there is significant evidence that US drone strikes have injured and killed civilians, but civilian casualties are rarely acknowledged; 2) US drone strike policies cause considerable and under-accounted-for harm to the daily lives of ordinary civilians, beyond death and personal injury (drones hover 24 hours a day over northwest Pakistan, striking homes, vehicles, and public spaces without warning; those living under drones face constant worry of a deadly strike and are powerless to protect themselves; 3) publically available evidence that the strikes have made the US safer overall is ambiguous at best; “evidence suggests that US strikes have facilitated recruitment to violent non-state armed groups, and motivated further violent attacks”; 4) drone strikes have soured many Pakistanis on cooperation with the US and undermined US-Pakistani relations; “one major study shows 74% of Pakistanis now consider the US an enemy”; 5) current US targeted killings and drone strike practices undermine respect for the rule of law and international legal protections, and may set dangerous precedents; 6) US practices may also facilitate recourse to lethal force around the globe; as drone manufacturers and officials successfully reduce export control barriers, and as more countries develop lethal drone technologies, these risks increase. Recommendations: undertake a fundamental reevaluation of current practices that looks at short and long-term costs and benefits, make public critical information on US drone strike policies, establish compensation programs for civilians, etc. [ALSO SEE “Here’s Looking at You: Should We Worry About the Rise of the Drone?” by Nick Paumgarten (The New Yorker, 14 May 2012, 46-59), who reports that the US military now has >10,000 unmanned aerial vehicles, up from just a few in 2001, and that “with the wars winding down, the drones, field-tested at taxpayer expense, are coming home and looking for jobs,” especially among public safety agencies. Paumgarten describes the drones now available, ever-smaller models such as the 6-inch Hummingbird under development, and tiny “robobees” that can fly autonomously and in swarms. Peter W. Singer at the Brookings Institution believes that drones will be as transformative as gunpowder and the computer, as their intelligence and autonomy grows. NOTE: Combine this above-ground development with small unmanned “sea gliders” that can cruise under the surface of the oceans with a minimum amount of power and no engine noise. At least 400 have already been built in the US, France, China, and Japan. (The Economist, 9 June 2012, 84-85.)] (SECURITY * DRONES QUESTIONED)
* Seeking Security in an Insecure World (2nd Edition). Dan Caldwell (Distinguished Prof of Pol Sci, Pepperdine U), Robert E. Williams Jr. (Assoc Prof of Pol Sci, Pepperdine U). Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011, 330p, $39pb (also as e-book). Today’s security agenda includes the threat posed by the spread of infectious disease, drug trafficking and competition for petroleum, ethnic rebellions, transnational criminal and terrorist organizations, and wars in cyberspace and on the ground against elusive individuals and shadowy organizations rather than states. The quest for security has become far more salient than it was during the euphoric days of the post-Cold War period and far more complicated than it was during the Cold War, as threats are increasingly transnational, interconnected, and stateless. (SECURITY * CYBERWAR)
* Right Wing Resurgence: How a Domestic Terrorist Threat Is Being Ignored. Daryl Johnson (Dept of Homeland Security). Washington: Government Institutes (dist by Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield), Sept 2012, 432p, $35 (also as e-book). A former senior terrorism analyst at the DHS Office of Intelligence & Analysis (2004-2010) offers a detailed account of the growth of right-wing extremism and militias in the US and the ever-increasing threat they pose. Provides insight into the DHS Rightwing Extremism report, and depicts the facts, circumstances and events leading up to the leak of this official intelligence assessment. Includes case studies and interviews with leaders, which reveal their agendas, how they recruit, and how they operate around the country. (SECURITY * CRIME * RIGHT-WING RESURGENCE IN U.S. * TERRORISM: DOMESTIC THREAT IN U.S.)
* The World of Cybercrime: Issues, Cases, and Responses (5 Volumes). Samuel C. McQuade III (Graduate Program Coordinator, Rochester Institute of Technology; Founder, Cyber Safety and Ethics Initiative; former US Dept of Justice and Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council). Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Dec 2012, 1,650p, $499.95 (also as e-book). Covers all major areas in the world of cybercrime with up-to-the minute detail on the extent and variety of current problems. Explores and differentiates major types of online activity involving IT-enabled abuse, threats, and cybercrimes. Topics include hacking, cracking, and malware Smacking; social computing and online sex; online gaming and Internet addiction; cyber bullying and online stalking; identity theft, phishing, and online fraud; and pirating, corporate espionage, and intellectual property theft. (COMMUNICATION * CRIME/JUSTICE * CYBERCRIME)
* Cyber Defense: Countering Targeted Attacks. Richard Stiennon. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield: Dec 2012, 192p, $39.95. Widespread random attacks from viruses, worms, and bots were used to engage in cyber crime and disruptive behavior. As these threats mature, they turn into targeted attacks against banks, large data processors, and governments. Today, such targeted attacks have become the greatest threat facing every organization. Overviews the technology, methodology, and tools needed to defend digital assets from targeted attacks. Addresses security practitioners, IT managers of corporate and government sites, and government agency officials determining cyber policies. Explains why countering targeted attacks requires new investment in technology, as well as changes to security operations and organizations. Addresses new services and products that have arisen to assist in the task of discovering and blocking targeted attacks, and how deploying these technologies properly is a critical defense against targeted attacks. Each chapter introduces a technology, the types of attacks it defends against, and the products and services available that are suited to the task. (CYBER DEFENSE * SECURITY * CRIME * INFOTECH: ATTACKS)
* Right Wing Resurgence: How a Domestic Terrorist Threat is Being Ignored. Daryl Johnson (former terrorism analyst, Dept of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence & Analysis, 2004-10). Washington: Government Institutes (dist by Rowman & Littlefield): Aug 2012, 432p, $45 (also as e-book). In 2008, there were 149 militia groups in the United States. In 2009, that number more than tripled to 512, and now there are nearly 600. Accounts for the growth of right wing extremism and militias in the US and the ever-increasing threat they pose. Depicts events leading up to the leak of the DHS Rightwing Extremism report. Includes case studies and interviews with leaders which reveal their agendas, how they recruit, and how they operate around the country. This threat is only beginning to be realized, and is still largely ignored in many circles. (SECURITY * RIGHT-WING MILITIAS IN U.S. * TERRORISM IN U.S.)
* Global Demographic Change and Its Implications for Military Power. Martin C. Libicki, Howard J. Shatz, and Julie E. Taylor. Santa Monica CA: RAND Corp, 2011, 170p, $32pb. Projects working age populations through 2050; reviews the influence of demographics on manpower, national income and expenditures, and human capital; and examines how changes in these factors may affect the ability of states to carry out military missions. Also considers the implications of these changes for other aspects of international security. Topics include: long-term trends in national GDP, the economic burden of aging populations, the influence of demographics on the causes of war, and the impact of demographic trends on military power projection. (MILITARY POWER AND POPULATION IN 2050 * GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE * WORLD FUTURES * SECURITY AND DEMOGRAPHICS)
* The Economics of Killing: How the West Fuels War and Poverty in the Developing World. Vijay Mehta (Chair, Uniting for Peace, London; founding trustee, Fortune Forum charity). Pluto Press, April 2012, 216p, $25pb. Globalization has created an interconnected world, but has not diminished violence and militarism. The power of global elites, entrenched under globalization, has created a deadly cycle of violence, and attempts at peaceful national development are routinely blocked by Western powers. Mehta, the author of The Fortune Forum Code: For a Sustainable Future (2006) and The United Nations and its Future in the 21st Century (2005), centers the 2008 financial crisis in US attempts to block China's model of development. Europe and the US conspire with regional dictators to prevent countries from developing advanced industries, and this system has fed terrorism. A different world is possible, based on policies of disarmament, demilitarization, and sustainable development. Topics include the military-industrial complex, the West’s addiction to arms sales, the ill effects of military spending, the culture of militarism, how to stop terrorism and non-state actors, forced migrations and refugees, future faultlines in the world, a practical way of reducing arms and armies, global security architecture for today’s world, and making the 21C the century of soft power. (SECURITY * MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX * POVERTY AND MILITARISM * ARMS SALES ADDICTION)
* Over the Horizon Proliferation Threats. Edited by James J. Wirtz (Prof of National Security, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey CA) and Peter R. Lavoy (Office of the Secretary of Defense). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, April 2012, 328p, $29.95pb. In every decade of the nuclear era, one or two states have developed nuclear weapons despite the international community’s opposition to proliferation. In the coming years, the breakdown of security arrangements, especially in the Middle East and Northeast Asia, could drive additional countries to seek their own nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) weapons, and missiles to deliver them. “This will likely produce more instability, more insecure states, and further proliferation.” Examines issues affecting a dozen or so countries’ nuclear weapons policies over the next decade; describes the domestic policy considerations and international pressures that shape such policies; and discusses factors that determine the motivations and capabilities of various states to acquire nuclear weapons. Also considers what the world community can do to counter this process. (SECURITY * NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION
* PROLIFERATION THREATS)
Useful Enemies: When Waging Wars Is More Important Than Winning Them. David Keen (Prof of Complex Emergencies, London School of Economics). New Haven, CT: Yale U Press, July 2012, 304p, $45 (also as e-book). The Cold War has been succeeded by a “war on drugs” and a “war on terror,” and there are currently some 20-30 civil wars worldwide. Investigates 1) why conflicts are so prevalent and intractable, even when one side has much greater military resources; 2) whether the “state of emergency” is more useful than peace; 3) why the efforts of aid organizations and international diplomats founder so often; and 4) who benefits from wars. To bring wars successfully to any end, we must understand the complex vested interests on all sides. (WAR RECONSIDERED * SECURITY)
* Investing in Security: A Global Assessment of Armed Violence Reduction Initiatives. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development & UN Development Programme. Paris: OECD, Sept 2011, 81p. Conservative estimates indicate that at least 740,000 men, women, youth and children die each year as a result of armed violence, most of them in low- and medium-income settings. The majority of these deaths occur in situations other than war, though armed conflicts continue to generate a high incidence of casualties. Provides information on Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention interventions and their effectiveness, maps 570 AVRP initiatives around the world (indicative of thousands that are underway), highlights promising practices, and focuses on the wide range of AVRP activities in six countries – Brazil, Burundi, Colombia, Liberia, South Africa and Timor-Leste.
(SECURITY * VIOLENCE REDUCTION INITIATIVES)
* Taking Liberties: The War on Terror and the Erosion of Democracy. Susan N. Herman (President, American Civil Liberties Union). NY: Oxford UP, Oct 2011, 288p, $24.95. Blacklists and watchlists keep people grounded at airports and strand American citizens abroad, although these lists are rife with errors – errors that cannot be challenged. A decade after 9/11, it is not yet clear whether the Patriot Act is keeping Americans safe, but it is clear that these emergency measures have the potential to ravage our lives, and have already done so to many Americans Government databanks are full of information about every aspect of our private lives, and Herman presents unsettling cases of ordinary people caught in the government’s dragnet, demonstrating what can happen when constitutional protections against the government abuse are abandoned.
(GOVERNMENT * DEMOCRACY ERODED* CIVIL LIBERTIES ERODED * WAR ON TERROR)
* The Peacekeeping Economy: Using Economic Relationships to Build a More Peaceful, Prosperous, and Secure World. Lloyd J. Dumas (Prof of Political Economy, U of Texas, Dallas). New Haven, CT: Yale U Press, Sept 2011, 432p, $45pb. The idea that military strength is virtually synonymous with security is deeply entrenched and widely held. However, security is better served by building relationships that replace hostility with a sense of purpose and mutual gain. Economic relationships can offer a far more effective, and far less costly, means of maintaining security. Looks at the practical aspects of the transition from a military-based security arrangement to economic peacekeeping. (SECURITY * “PEACEKEEPING ECONOMY” * MILITARY VS. ECONOMIC SECURITY)
* New Battlefields/Old Laws: Critical Debates on Asymmetric Warfare. Edited by William C. Banks (Prof of Public Administration, Maxwell School, Syracuse U). NY: Columbia U Press, Oct 2011, 304p, $29.50pb. Changing patterns of global conflict are forcing a reexamination of the traditional laws of war. The Hague Rules and the post-1949 law of armed conflict no longer account for non-state groups that wage prolonged campaigns of terrorism. Today’s conflicts are low-intensity, asymmetrical wars fought between disparate military forces (terrorist insurgent groups, paramilitaries, child soldiers, civilians participating in hostilities, and private military firms). Gaps in the laws of war leave modern battlefields largely unregulated, and these gaps embolden weaker, non-state combatants to exploit forbidden strategies and violate the laws of war. Charts the evolution of the 21C battlefield, and sets forth a legal definition of new wars. (SECURITY * LAWS OF WAR OUTDATED * WARFARE LAWS OUTDATED * ASYMMETRIC WARFARE)
* Sex and World Peace. Valerie M. Hudson (Prof of Pol Sci, Brigham Young U), Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill (Prof of Psychology, BYU), Mary Caprioli (Assoc Prof of Pol Sci, U of Minnesota Duluth), and Chad F. Emmett (political geographer, BYU). NY: Columbia U Press, Feb 2012, 256p, $26.50. The security of the state affects the security of women, but the systemic insecurity of women acts to unravel the security of all. Explores the question of whether the security of women helps determine the security of states and proves that the situation of women is a vital variable in the incidence of peace and war. Notes discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable family law. Emphasizes the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women. Also questions conventional definitions of security and democracy, and argues that “the true clash of civilizations will be one of gender, played out on the international stage.” (SECURITY * WOMEN AND WORLD SECURITY)
** War on Drugs: Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy. Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Chair; former President of Brazil), George P. Schultz (Honorary Chair, former US Secretary of State), and 17 others. Global Commission, June 2011, 24p (download at www.globalcommissionondrugs.org). “The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world.” Fifty years after initiating the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and 40 years after President Nixon launched the US war on drugs, “fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed.” Vast expenditures on criminalization and repressive measures directed at producers, traffickers, and consumers of illegal drugs have clearly failed to curtail supply or consumption. Apparent victories in eliminating one source or trafficking organization are negated almost instantly by emergence of other sources and traffickers. Repressive efforts directed at consumers impede public health measures. Government spending on futile supply reduction strategies and incarceration displace more cost-effective and evidence-based investments. Principles and proposals: 1) end the criminalization and stigmatization of people who use drugs, but who do no harm to others; 2) encourage experimentation by governments with models of legal regulation of drugs to undermine the power of organized crime and safeguard the health and security of citizens (this applies especially to cannabis); 3) offer health and treatment services to those in need, ensuring that a variety of treatment modalities are available; 4) respect the human rights of people who use drugs and abolish abusive practices carried out in the name of treatment; 5) apply much the same principles and policies stated above to people involved in the lower ends of illegal drug markets (e.g. farmers, couriers, petty sellers); incarcerating tens of millions of these people in recent decades has filled prisons and destroyed lives and families; 6) invest in activities that can prevent young people from taking drugs and prevent those who do use drugs from developing more serious problems (eschew simplistic “just say no” messages and “zero tolerance” policies); 7) focus repressive actions on violent criminal organizations in ways that undermine their power and reach; 8) begin the transformation of the global drug prohibition regime with fiscally responsible policies and strategies grounded in science, health, security, and human rights; 9) “break the taboo on debate and reform: the time for action is now.” [NOTE: Other members of the Commission include Kofi Annan (former UN Secretary-General) and former Presidents of Colombia and Mexico.] (DRUGS: GLOBAL COMMISSION * SECURITY * HEALTH * PUBLIC HEALTH * CRIME HUMAN RIGHTS)
** Israeli Statecraft: National Security Challenges and Responses. Yehezkel Dror (Prof of Pol Sci and Pub Adm Emeritus, Hebrew U of Jerusalem). NY: Routledge, July 2011, 246p. Former staff member at RAND and author of The Capacity to Govern: A Report to the Club of Rome (Frank Cass, 2002) defines “statecraft” as “coherent, long-term, and broadband political-security paradigms, assessments, frames of appreciation, orientations, stances, and principles.” Chapters discuss ten world mega-trends and one “mega-invariance” (continuous conflict and bloodshed, “likely to continue and escalate”), Israel’s uniqueness and its arena in the 21C world, conflict morphology, conflict system dynamics, a new Middle East peace paradigm (“Israeli embassy in Riyadh”), a new global paradigm (Israel “dwelling in the world”) and much more. [NOTE: An extraordinary book of creative, critical, and wide-ranging scholarship (some 900 references), to be further explicated as GFB Book of the Month for September 2011. Although largely concerned with Israeli policy, the chapter on mega-trends deserves wide attention.] (WORLD FUTURES * ISRAEL * STATECRAFT * SECURITY * GLOBAL MEGATRENDS)
* Climate Change and National Security: A Country-Level Analysis. Edited by Daniel Moran (Prof of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA). Washington: Georgetown U Press, March 2011, 320p, $29.95pb. Sheds light on the way environmental stress may be translated into political, social, economic, and military challenges in the future. Explores and estimates the intermediate-term security risks that climate change may pose for the United States, its allies and partners, and for regional and global order through the year 2030. Profiles of 42 key countries and regions cover China, Vietnam, The Philippines, Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Central Asia, the European Union, the Persian Gulf, Egypt, Turkey, the Maghreb, West Africa, Southern Africa, the Northern Andes, and Brazil. (CLIMATE CHANGE * SECURITY * ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND SECURITY * REGIONS/NATIONS)
** Water Security: The Water-Food-Energy-Climate Nexus. The World Economic Forum Water Initiative. Davos: World Economic Forum (dist by Island Press), Jan 2011, 300p, $30pb (also e-book). “The world is on the brink of the greatest crisis it has ever faced: a spiraling lack of fresh water,” as demand for water surges, while groundwater dries up. Worsening water security will soon have dire consequences in many parts of the global economic system. At its 2008 Davos Annual Meeting, the WEF assembled a group of public, private, NGO and academic experts to examine the water crisis issue from all perspectives. The resulting forecast – a stark, nontechnical overview of where we will be by 2025 if we take a business-as-usual approach to (mis)managing our water resources – suggests how business and politics need to manage the water-food-energy-climate nexus as leaders negotiate details of a climate change regime to replace the Kyoto protocols.
(WATER * SECURITY AND WATER * CLIMATE CHANGE * ENERGY * FOOD/AGRICULTURE)
** Democracy’s Arsenal: Creating a Twenty-First-Century Defense Industry. Jacques S. Gansler (Prof of Public Policy and Private Enterprise, U of Maryland; former Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics 1997-2001). Cambridge: MIT Press, June 2011, 464p, $45. Twentieth-century defense strategies, technologies, and industrial practices will not meet the security requirements of a post-9/11 world. Government and industry must transform to achieve a more effective system of national defense and pursue a strategy that combines a healthy economy, effective international relations, and a stronger but affordable security posture. Gansler discusses globalization of defense business, consolidation and competition in the defense industry, performance of the Defense Department, the dysfunctional behavior of Congress, and the role of defense contractors and their employees in supporting combat operations. To meet the new challenges of national security, “a total transformation is necessary,” with strong leadership to overcome expected resistance to change. (SECURITY * DEFENSE INDUSTRY FOR 21C)
**Dark Logic: Transnational Criminal Tactics and Global Security. Robert Mandel (Prof of Intl Affairs, Lewis & Clark College, Portland OR). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Dec 2010/280p/$24.95pb. Transnational non-state forces (flows of people, goods, and services moving readily across borders) have been a major source of global instability. Transnational organized crime, multifaceted and intertwined with the fabric of society, undermines the total security of countries (in its economic, cultural and political dimensions) and presents a global security challenge of huge proportions. Examines in depth when and how transnational organized crime is likely to use corruption and violence, when and how these activities most affect the individual and the state, and when and how the consequences can be successfully combated. (CRIME/JUSTICE * SECURITY * ORGANIZED CRIME)
*Between Threats and War: US Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World. Micah Zenko (Fellow for Conflict Prevention, CFR). A Council on Foreign Relations Book. Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Aug 2010/256p/$24.95pb. American policy makers resort to “Discrete Military Operations” (for instance, air raids in Bosnia and Somalia, and drone strikes in Yemen and Pakistan) when confronted with a persistent foreign policy problem that threatens US interests, and that cannot be adequately addressed through economic or political pressure. Examines 36 DMOs undertaken by the US over the last 20 years and discusses why they were used, whether they achieved their objectives, and what determined their success or failure. (SECURITY * DISCRETE MILITARY OPERATIONS)
* Cutting the Fuse: The Explosion of Global Suicide Terrorism and How to Stop It. Robert A. Pape (Prof of Pol Sci, U of Chicago) and James K. Feldman (former Air Force Institute of Technology). Chicago IL: U of Chicago Press, Oct 2010/356p/$30. The Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism examined every suicide terrorist attack worldwide from 1980 to 2009, finding that the number of these attacks have grown with “shocking speed”—now killing more people than all other forms of terrorism. Contrary to popular belief, only a few of these attacks are motivated solely by religion; instead, the root cause is foreign military occupation. Calls for new, effective, and sustainable solutions for America and its allies: relying less on ground troops in Muslim countries and more off-shore, over-the-horizon military forces, along with political and economic strategies to empower local communities to stop terrorists.
(SECURITY * TERRORISM * SUICIDE TERRORISM)
* Climate Wars: The Fight for Survival as the World Overheats. Gwynne Dyer. Oxford UK: Oneworld Publications (dist in US by National Book Network), June 2010/280p/$24.95. Author of a twice-weekly column on international affairs, published by 175 newspapers in 45 countries, describes some of the expected consequences of runaway climate change in the decades ahead: dwindling resources, massive population shifts, natural disasters, spreading epidemics, drought, rising sea levels, plummeting agricultural yields, crashing economies, and political extremism. Any of these could tip the world toward conflict. Scenarios include civil war in China in the 2020s and 2030s, collapse of the EU in 2036 under the stress of mass migration, nuclear strikes between India and Pakistan in 2036, the US losing a large share of its crop-growing area, the Colder War (Russia vs. NATO over the Arctic, but not as bad as the Cold War), and how humanity manages to curb global warming after countless climate-related disasters. [NOTE: Dyer holds a PhD in war studies from the U of London and has taught at Sandhurst. He is a well-known broadcaster and lecturer on international affairs, but not in the US.]
(CLIMATE CHANGE * SECURITY AND CLIMATE)
* Mass Atrocity Crimes: Preventing Future Outrages. Edited by Robert I. Rotberg (director, Program on Intrastate Conflict and Conflict Resolution, Harvard U; president, World Peace Foundation). Washington: Brookings Institution Press, July 2010/264p/$28.95pb. Converting norms into effective preventive measures remains difficult. Millions of people, particularly in Africa, face the daily prospect of death at the hands of state or state-linked forces, although the UN and the African Union have adopted the “Responsibility to Protect”. R2P holds that states have a primary responsibility to protect their citizens from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity; when states cannot protect their citizens, the international community must step into the breach. Examines the legal framework to inhibit war crimes, use the emerging R2P, the role of the International criminal Court, and the new methods to gather early warnings. Shows how mass atrocities may be anticipated, prevented, and prosecuted. (SECURITY * MASS ATROCITY CRIMES * “RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT” (R2P) * AFRICA: MASS ATROCITIES)
** A Skeptic’s Case for Nuclear Disarmament. Michael E. O’Hanlon (director of research, Foreign Policy, Brookings Institution). Washington: Brookings Institution Press, Nov 2010/160p/$26.95. Endorses conditional nuclear disarmament, showing that even when a Global Zero accord is in place, temporary suspension of restrictions may be necessary in response to nuclear “cheating” or discovery of an advanced biological weapons program. “Even once we eliminate nuclear weapons, we will have to accept the fact that we may have not done so forever.” The genie is out of the bottle, so taking all nuclear options off the table forever strengthens the hand of those who do not honor a nuclear agreement. Dismantling existing bomb inventories, in recognition of their dangerous and destabilizing potential, should be our goal. (SECURITY * NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT)
** Hyperconflict: Globalization and Insecurity. James H. Mittelman (University Prof of Intl Affairs, American U). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, Jan 2010, 288p, $24.95pb. Author of Whither Globalization? (Routledge, 2005) and The Globalization Syndrome (Princeton, 2001) views hyperconflict as a consequence of globalization. Intense interaction of the systemic drivers of global security and insecurity heightens insecurity at a world level. The emergent condition of hyperconflict results in reorganized political violence (as states are unable to monopolize legitimate violence), a growing climate of fear, and increasing world instability (fueled by technology and economic integration). Concludes with scenarios for future world order, offered as an early warning to prevent the gathering storm of hyperconflict and to identify opportunities for establishing enduring peace.
(SECURITY AND GLOBALIZATION * HYPERCONFLICT AND GLOBALIZATION * GLOBALIZATION AND HYPERCONFLICT * WORLD FUTURES)
* Securing Freedom in the Global Commons. Scott Jasper (Naval Postgraduate School; author of Transforming Defense Capabilities: New Approaches for International Security). Palo Alto CA: Stanford U Press, March 2010, 312p, $24.95pb. Editor of Transforming Defense Capabilities: New Approaches for International Security (Lynne Rienner, 2009) points to an ever-expanding range of threats to global security, at a time when national security and global prosperity depend on a global system of mutually supporting networks of commerce. The global commons—outer space, international waters, international airspace, and cyberspace —are assets outside of national jurisdiction that facilitate free flow of trade, finance, information, people, and technology. It is shared by military and civil operations, and regulated by international law. Defense of the commons is a growing challenge. In this volume, leading experts (both academics and practitioners) examine initiatives and offer frameworks designed to minimize vulnerabilities and to preserve advantages.(GLOBAL COMMONS AND SECURITY* SECURITY)
*Securing Human Mobility in the Age of Risk: New Challenges for Travel, Migration, and Borders. Susan Ginsburg (Director, MPI Mobility and Security Program; former senior counsel on the 9/11 Commission). Washington: Migration Policy Institute (dist. Brookings), April 2010, 240p, $24.95pb. Protecting human mobility is a complex homeland security challenge: US borders are crossed nearly 500 million times a year, and more than a fourth of US citizens have passports. Despite massive undertakings since 9/11, current enforcement remains out of sync with some security imperatives. Advocates travel bans and new international organizations that comprehensively ensures the integrity of mobility infrastructure, while preventing life-threatening and illicit movement.
(SECURITY OF HUMAN MOBILITY * MIGRATION AND SECURITY)
* Globalization and Security: An Encyclopedia (two volumes). Edited by G. Honor Fagan (Dept of Sociology, Natl U of Ireland Maynooth) and Ronaldo Munck (Senior Lecturer in Sociology, U of Liverpool). Westport CT: Praeger Security International. Volume 1, Economic and Political Aspects (Oct 2009/884p/$124.95), looks at the impact of globalization on security, human security broadly conceived, and the role of globalization in the world’s new and ever-evolving security environment. Volume 2, Social and Cultural Aspects, is “forthcoming.”
(GLOBALIZATION AND SECURITY * SECURITY AND GLOBALIZATION)
* American National Security (Sixth Edition). Amos A. Jordan (President Emeritus, Center for Strategic and International Studies), William J. Taylor Jr (CSIS), Michael J. Meese (Prof of Social Sciences, US Military Academy), and Suzanne C. Nielsen (Prof of International Rels, USMA). Johns Hopkins U Press, May 2009/672p/$30pb. On challenges, opportunities, and the new strategic context in the early 21C, considering new factors affecting US security policy, the Dept of Homeland Security, changes in the intelligence community, terrorism, an update of regional security issues (East Asia, Middle East, etc.), globalization, economic security, and human security.
(SECURITY OVERVIEW * U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY)
* America’s Defense Meltdown: Pentagon Reform for President Obama and the New Congress. Edited by Winslow T. Wheeler (Director, Military Reform Project, Center for Defense Information). Palo Alto CA: Stanford UP, April 2009/272p/$19.95pb. The 13 Pentagon insiders (retired officers, defense specialists, etc.) describe how the US armed forces are manned and equipped to fight enemies that do not now—and may never again—exist; the hugely expensive and excessively complex weapons are barely adequate for outmoded 20C warfare, and woefully inadequate for 21C war.
(SECURITY * PENTAGON REFORM)
* The Modern Defense Industry: Political, Economic, and Technological Issues. Edited by Richard A. Bitzinger (Senior Fellow, Rajaratnam Institute of International Studies, Singapore). Westport CT: Praeger Security International, Oct 2009/376p/$84.95. Covers the US, Europe, Russia, China, Israel, and other important arms-producing and arms-procuring countries from 1945 to present. Topics include implications of globalization on the industry, the black and gray areas of the arms trade, lists of defense firms and leading contractors and weapons systems, professional organizations, arms proliferation, problems and controversies surrounding the rise of the industry, and relations between the industry, military, and government. (SECURITY * DEFENSE INDUSTRY WORLDWIDE)
* One Nation Under Contract: The Outsourcing of American Power and the Future of Foreign Policy. Allison Stanger (Prof of International Politics, Middlebury College). Yale U Press, Oct 2009/288p/$26. The outsourcing of US government activities is far greater than realized, has been very poorly managed, and has inadvertently militarized US foreign policy. Absence of good government is the problem, not the contractors: with improved transparency and accountability, these public-private partnerships can significantly extend the reach and effectiveness of US efforts abroad.
(SECURITY * OUTSOURCING OF U.S. POWER)
* Global Environmental Change and Human Security. Edited by Richard A. Matthew (Assoc Prof of Politics, UC-Irvine) and three others. Cambridge: MIT Press, Dec 2009/328p/$25pb. In recent years, scholars have begun to conceive of security more broadly, moving away from a state-centered concept of national security toward the concept of human security; global environmental change and new questions of human insecurity are viewed through this lens. (SECURITY * ENVIRONMENT)
** WMD Terrorism: Science and Policy Choices. Edited by Stephen M. Maurer (Adjunct Associate Prof of Law, UC-Berkeley). Cambridge MA: MIT Press, Sept 2009/616p/$38pb. Reviews what scientists and scholars know about WMD terrorism and America’s options for confronting it, identifying multiple instances where conventional wisdom is incomplete or misleading regarding nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical weapons technologies; topics include allocating defense resources, port and airport defense, response and recovery technologies for WMD-contaminated sites, international initiatives to limit WMD proliferation and fight terrorism, and R&D incentives for bioweapons vaccines.
(SECURITY * TERRORISM)
* Apocalypse Never: Forging the Path to a Nuclear Weapon-Free World. Tad Daley (writing fellow, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War). Rutgers U Press, Feb 2010/256p/$24.95. While global climate change poses the single greatest long-term peril to humanity, the nuclear challenge in its many incarnations poses the single most immediate peril. Abolition of nuclear weapons is both essential and achievable: they are militarily unnecessary, morally indefensible, and politically unsustainable. Refutes the most frequent objection to disarmament—the “breakout scenario” where someone might reveal a dozen or so nuclear warheads and proceed to “rule the world.” A comprehensive nuclear policy agenda can integrate nonproliferation with disarmament.
(SECURITY * NUCLEAR WEAPONS)
* Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism from Hiroshima to Al Qaeda. John Mueller (Chair of Natl Security Studies & Prof of Pol Sci, Ohio State U). NY: Oxford UP, Nov 2009/320p/$27.95. Obsession with nuclear weapons is unsupported by history, fact, or logic: nukes have had little impact on history, they have inspired overwrought policies and distorted spending priorities, and have proven militarily useless; anxieties about use by terrorists are essentially baseless.
(SECURITY * NUCLEAR WEAPONS)